Space-age laser and plasma train trials zap autumn leaves off the line: Close up shot of plasma jet cleaning rail head during Network Rail trials October 2022

Wednesday 26 Oct 2022

Space-age laser and plasma train trials zap autumn leaves off the line

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North West & Central
| National
| North West & Central: North West

Space-age technology using lasers and plasma jets are being trialled as a more sustainable way to vaporise autumn leaves from railway lines and minimise passenger delays in the future.

Throughout October, Network Rail has been carrying out comprehensive testing using its multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs) on heritage lines at the East Lancashire Railway.

Engineers have been testing if autumn treatment trains fitted with the laser beams and superheated plasma jets are as effective at cleaning rails as the current method using high pressure water systems.

During autumn train wheels compress leaves onto rails and form a black Teflon-like residue which makes it harder for trains to brake or accelerate.

Suhayb Manzoor, Network Rail project engineer, said: “Leaves on the line are often seen as a joke on the railway but they can cause serious problems and we’re always looking at new ways to tackle this age-old problem.

“It’s also not unique to Britain, with railways all over the world having issues when trees shed their leaves. For that reason, it’s exciting to be putting some of the newest technology out there to the test with the hope that one day it could help Network Rail keep passengers and freight moving safely at this operationally challenging time of year.”

The two different companies involved in the testing are:

  • Laser Precision Solutions - The ‘LaserTrain’ uses three high powered beams per railhead to treat the rails. When the intensity of the lasers hits the railhead the contamination instantly vaporises (ablates), without heating up the rail.
  • PlasmaTrack - Uses direct current (DC) plasma technology which uses heat and active electrons to split things apart. The high energy electrical plasma beam tears apart the leaf layer as well as heating and burning it off.

Currently a fleet of leaf-blasting trains with high-pressure water jets clear Britain’s 20,000-mile railway network in the autumn.

Each year:

  • The treatment fleet covers 1 million miles between October and December
  • That’s the entire network being treated 50 times over
  • Or the same as going to the moon and back twice
  • It uses around 200 million litres of water

This technology could potentially reduce the need for that water, and the fuel needed to transport it around the country, benefiting both the environment and costing the taxpayer less.

If the tests find lasers or plasma can clean the rails effectively, further development work will be needed to see if it would work on the complexities of the live railway network.

Further studies would also be required to examine the business case for adopting any new technology.

Ben Medendorp, Laser Precision Solutions head of finance and commerce, said: “Normally you really have to move mountains to get access to a railway network, so having a testing site like this which is secluded where you can take measurements every day is essential to gather data.

“I really do think that Network Rail is taking a leadership role in the industry by solving this global issue of low railhead adhesion. We are proving technologies and learning valuable lessons that could help railways around the world."

Julian Swan, PlasmaTrack chief executive officer, said: “Having three weeks of uninterrupted testing available on an operational railway isn’t usually possible so being able to carry out these trials with Network Rail and East Lancashire Railway have been invaluable.

“We’ve learnt a lot on how the autumn treatment trains (MPVs) currently operate, and how the PlasmaTrack system could benefit train wheel traction and protecting wheel-slide caused by leaves on the line.”

Mike Kelly, East Lancashire Railway chairman, said: “When people think of heritage railways, they probably think they just look at preserving the past, but here at the East Lancashire Railway we want to be a moderniser too. 

"We’re very proud to be able to play our part and provide our tracks and infrastructure to allow Network Rail to do their important research and development, and excited to be at the forefront of technology which could make millions of future journeys better for passengers across the country."

For more information on Network Rail's autumn clearance programme visit:

Notes to Editors

Why are leaves a problem on the railway?

Regarded as the railway’s equivalent of black ice on the roads, leaves on the line can create issues when they stick to damp rails and are compressed by moving trains into a thin, black layer which can affect train braking and acceleration.

The build-up of leaf mulch can also make it harder for signallers to detect a train’s location, causing delays.

About Laser Precision Solutions

Established in 2016, LPS aims to solve various business challenges using advanced laser technology.  Today, its focus is on the friction loss that railways face in Autumn due to leaves on the line.  Its high-speed laser cleaning technology helps rail networks run safe, efficient, and reliable services. 

The LPS LaserTrain prototype was first deployed in the US in 2018, increasing to two active trains running at speeds of 25mph in 2020. Now, in 2022 multiple 60mph LaserTrain’s are being trialled globally. With low energy consumption and no byproducts, the LaserTrain is highly eco-friendly.

About PlasmaTrack

PlasmaTrack is a railway technology business which is focused on unlocking predictable and optimised braking for the UK rail network. It will achieve this through the use of plasma to remove & retard the formation of low friction contamination on the railhead (‘Leaves on the Line’) and thereby returning the rail wheel interface to summer braking conditions.

The technology was born out of an Innovate UK SBRI feasibility study launched by the Railway Safety and Standards Board (RSSB) for Predictable & Optimised Braking. The end goal of this industry calling is to increase the UK rail network capacity through Closer Running. 

The technology works by superheating compressed gas to form plasma energy, which is then applied to the rail head at approximately 700°C where it thermally ablates the compressed leaf layer. Plasma energy is used throughout industry for cleaning, sterilisation, and material deposition, but this is the first time it has been developed into a robust system suitable for deployment on rail networks

About East Lancashire Railway

ELR opened as a heritage railway in 1987, and hosts around 200,000 visitors annually, as one of the leading visitor attractions in the North West.

Operating steam trains from Bolton Street Station in Bury, along a 12.5-mile line between Heywood, in Greater Manchester, and Rawtenstall in Lancashire, the railway was recently recognised with TripAdvisor Travellers Choice Award for 2022. 

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